Pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) is a condition that occurs during pregnancy and the first few weeks after birth. It is not a disease, but an abnormal physiological state resulting from the increase in blood pressure and heart rate due to hormonal changes after fertilization. It is characterized by the development of severe headaches, fatigue, high blood pressure, fainting spells, and abdominal pain.
Pregnancy-induced hypertension brought on by pregnancy is medically referred to as toxaemia or preeclampsia. It is particularly common among first-time mothers who are young. This condition is more prevalent in pregnancies with multiple babies, as well as in women who had experienced preeclampsia in a previous pregnancy.
Hypertensive disorders during pregnancy are a prominent cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality, making them a serious public health concern among obstetric patients. According to the World Health Organization, hypertension problems during pregnancy kill at least one woman every seven minutes.
Gestational hypertension can potentially result in complications for the developing fetus, such as intrauterine growth restriction (inadequate fetal growth) or even stillbirth. When left untreated, severe prenatal hypertension can lead to potentially life-threatening convulsions known as eclampsia and the death of both the mother and infant.
Preeclampsia probably has a complex set of causes. In the opinion of specialists, it all starts in the placenta, the organ responsible for providing nutrients to the developing baby. In the first trimester of pregnancy, the placenta receives its supply of oxygen and nutrients via newly formed and adapted blood arteries.
These blood arteries don’t seem to form or function normally in preeclamptic women. An issue with placental blood flow could cause the mother’s blood pressure to fluctuate unpredictably.
When high blood pressure develops during pregnancy but before week 20, it is called gestational hypertension. Preeclampsia can occur in some women who have gestational hypertension.
Pre-existing or developing high blood pressure in the first 20 weeks of pregnancy is considered chronic hypertension. Persistent hypertension is also known as chronic hypertension, and it typically occurs in women more than three months after giving birth.
When a woman who already has high blood pressure during pregnancy experiences a worsening of her condition, as evidenced by the presence of protein in her urine or other difficulties, she is said to have chronic hypertension with superimposed preeclampsia.
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This is a very common question that is asked by patients, but the answer is not so straightforward. There are many factors that can influence weight gain during pregnancy and in fact, there are several theories on how it affects women during pregnancy. But in certain cases, weight gain over the course of one or two days is due to a significant rise in total body fluid.
This study aims to determine whether or not weight gain is associated with pregnancy-induced hypertension. The authors found that PIH is associated with a higher BMI and a lower BMI at follow-up. They found that PIH was associated with an increased BMI at follow-up, even after adjusting for potential confounders such as age, body mass index (BMI), smoking status, exercise, alcohol consumption and physical activity.
There were no differences between women who had PIH or non-PIH.” In light of both points of view, the ultimate response might either be yes some of the time or no some of the time as well.
Preeclampsia is characterized by elevated blood pressure, proteinuria, and other indicators of organ dysfunction. In certain cases, the disease shows no visible symptoms. It is common for preeclampsia to be diagnosed at the first pregnancy check-up.
Ø Having fewer platelets in the blood (thrombocytopenia)
Ø Elevation of liver enzymes suggestive of liver damage
Ø Difficulty breathing due to excess fluid in the lungs.
Ø Brutal headaches
Ø Signs of kidney disease include proteinuria (excess protein in the urine).
Ø Vision impairment, sensitivity to light, and other visual anomalies
Ø Discomfort in the upper abdomen, specifically immediately below the rib cage
Ø Feelings of nausea and/or vomiting
In a normal pregnancy, you might expect to gain some weight and have some swelling (oedema). However, preeclampsia can be an indication of rapid weight gain or the sudden onset of oedema, especially in the face and hands.
If you encounter any of these symptoms, you should make an appointment with your primary care physician or a doctor as soon as possible.
The initial symptoms of pre-eclampsia are a sharp increase in blood pressure and the presence of protein in the urine.
While it’s likely that you won’t experience any of these symptoms yourself, your doctor or lactation consultant should be able to identify them during your prenatal visits.
Pre-eclampsia is a condition that, once it has developed, does not go away until after the baby is born. Resting at home may be the initial step in the treatment process; however, certain women will need to be admitted to the hospital to receive treatment and to take medications to bring their high blood pressure under control and reduce the amount of fluid that builds up in their bodies. In addition to this, you might take medicine to prevent seizures.
In certain cases, the only approach to treat pre-eclampsia is to have the baby delivered early, either by inducing labour or by a caesarean section. This might be the only option.
The pre-eclampsia will typically disappear rapidly when the baby is born. Despite this, there is still a chance that there will be issues. As a result, you may be required to remain hospitalised for many days and to continue taking medicine to maintain healthy blood pressure. It’s possible that your newborn will need to be cared for in a specialised nursery if they were born prematurely or are unusually small.
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